Hardware and Network

Hardware and Network: Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are physical devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network. Specifically, they mediate data in a computer network.Units which are the last receiver or generate data are called hosts or data terminal equipment.

Range: Networking devices may include gateways, routers, network bridges, modems, wireless access points, networking cables, line drivers, switches, hubs, and repeaters; and may also include hybrid network devices such as multilayer switches, protocol converters, bridge routers, proxy servers, firewalls, network address translators, multiplexers, network interface controllers, wireless network interface controllers, ISDN terminal adapters and other related hardware. The most common kind of networking hardware today is a copper-based Ethernet adapter which is a standard inclusion on most modern computer systems. Wireless networking has become increasingly popular, especially for portable and handheld devices. Other networking hardware used in computers includes data center equipment (such as file servers, database servers and storage areas), network services (such as DNS, DHCP, email, etc.) as well as devices which assure content delivery. Taking a wider view, mobile phones, PDAs and even modern coffee machines may also be considered networking hardware. As technology advances and IP-based networks are integrated into building infrastructure and household utilities, network hardware will become an ambiguous term owing to the vastly increasing number of "network capable" endpoints.
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Specific devices-:

an interface providing a compatibility between networks by converting transmission speeds, protocols, codes, or security measures.[2]

a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the "traffic directing" functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node.[3] It works on OSI layer 3.[4]

a device that connects devices together on a computer network, by using packet switching to receive, process and forward data to the destination device. Unlike less advanced network hubs, a network switch forwards data only to one or multiple devices that need to receive it, rather than broadcasting the same data out of each of its ports.[5] It works on OSI layer 2.

Other hardware devices used for establishing networks or dial-up connections include:
  1. A)Multiplexer: a device that selects only one signal from several electrical input signals.
  2. B)Network interface controller (NIC): a device connecting a computer to a wire-based computer network.
  3. C)Wireless network interface controller: a device connecting the attached computer to a radio-based computer network.
  4. D)Modem: device that modulates an analog "carrier" signal (such as sound) to encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. Used (for example) when a computer communicates with another computer over a telephone network.
  5. E)ISDN terminal adapter (TA): a specialized gateway for ISDN.
  6. F)Line driver: a device to increase transmission distance by amplifying the signal; used in base-band networks only.

Computer hardware : the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card, speakers and motherboard.[1] By contrast, software is instructions that can be stored and run by hardware. Hardware is directed by the software to execute any command or instruction. A combination of hardware and software forms a usable computing system. The template for all modern computers is the Von Neumann architecture, detailed in a 1945 paper by Hungarian mathematician John von Neumann. This describes a design architecture for an electronic digital computer with subdivisions of a processing unit consisting of an arithmetic logic unit and processor registers, a control unit containing an instruction register and program counter, a memory to store both data and instructions, external mass storage, and input and output mechanisms.[2] The meaning of the term has evolved to mean a stored-program computer in which an instruction fetch and a data operation cannot occur at the same time because they share a common bus. This is referred to as the Von Neumann bottleneck and often limits the performance of the system











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